The history of the United States is preserved in archives, books, and the collective memory of the American people. It is also preserved in monuments, memorials, and statues made from marble, granite, bronze, or plaster.
Our nation's capital is home to some of the world's most recognizable and frequently visited monuments. This blog series will explore the events and people they commemorate, devoting particular attention to the spiritual themes depicted. By shedding light on our nation's deep religious heritage, this series aims to inspire the next generation to emulate virtues and merits from America's past that are worth memorializing.
FRC's blog series on monuments is written by FRC summer interns and edited by David Closson, FRC's Director of Christian Ethics and Biblical Worldview. Be sure to read our previous posts on the Lincoln Memorial, the World War II Memorial, the Joan of Arc Memorial, the Korean War Memorial, the 56 Signers of the Declaration of Independence Memorial, the Japanese American Memorial, the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial, the Titanic Memorial, and the Thomas Jefferson Memorial.
The Washington Monument serves as a memorial to the life of George Washington, particularly his leadership as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War and as the first president of the United States. It also stands as a reminder of America's rich religious heritage.
Washington was so pivotal to America's founding that he has been called the "father of his country." He was a member of the First Continental Congress in 1774 and then was appointed commander-in-chief of the army in 1775. As a general, he is especially remembered for his stalwart leadership during the winter encampment at Valley Forge in 1777-78. After leading America to victory and independence on the battlefield, Washington presided over the convention that produced the U.S. Constitution. In 1789, he was unanimously elected the nation's first president.
President Washington and his administration laid a strong foundation for the United States of America. Some notable events during Washington's presidency include the celebration of the first federally-recognized Thanksgiving, the putting down of the Whiskey Rebellion, the induction of new states (North Carolina, Rhode Island, Vermont, Kentucky, and Tennessee), and the approval of the Bill of Rights. Washington also oversaw the signing of the Jay Treaty (normalizing trade relations with Great Britain), Pinckney's Treaty (friendship with Spain), and the Treaty of Tripoli (access to Mediterranean shipping routes). Washington also set the presidential precedent of selecting a cabinet of advisors and stepping down after two terms.
Even before Washington became president, members of Congress wanted to create a statue of him to honor his wartime accomplishments. However, because the young country was lacking in funds, the project was scrapped.
Pierre L'Enfant, the designer of the federal capital (which was officially named after the first president in 1791), envisioned a monument honoring President Washington and even designated a special spot for an equestrian statue of Washington in his initial layout of the city.
The Washington National Monument Society, a private organization started by President James Madison and Chief Justice John Marshall, raised funds for the monument's construction. First Lady Dolley Madison and Elizabeth Hamilton, widow of Alexander Hamilton, were also instrumental in raising funds. In 1833, the Society facilitated a contest to design the monument. The contest's winner, Robert Mills, also designed the U.S. Treasury Building and the U.S. Patent Office. The latter building now holds the National Portrait Gallery and the Smithsonian American Art Museum.
On July 4, 1848, a cornerstone-laying ceremony was held. President James K. Polk and future presidents James Buchanan, Abraham Lincoln, and Andrew Johnson were in attendance. Embedded in the cornerstone is a box of artifacts, including a portrait of Washington.
By 1854, Mills had built 156 feet of the monument. His design was incredibly daunting, and he encountered many obstacles during its construction. For example, when Pope Pius IX donated a stone from the Roman Temple of Concord, the gift sparked an outcry from the "Know Nothing" Party that opposed Catholicism and Catholic immigrants.
Unfortunately, Mills died in 1855 before the monument could be completed. The unfinished monument stood untouched for two decades.
In 1876, President Ulysses S. Grant approved funding to finish the monument, and work resumed in 1879. When Thomas Casey and the U.S. Army of Engineers could not find the original rock quarry, they were forced to use different stone. As a result, three different shades of stone from three different quarries were used in the monument's construction.
In 1885, 36 years after the cornerstone had been laid, the monument was finished. On February 21, 1885, the day before Washington's birthday, the monument was dedicated. At the time, the 555-foot-tall Egyptian-style obelisk was the tallest building in the world.
The Washington Monument has been the location of a few notable events. In 1982, veteran and anti-nuclear weapons activist Norman Mayer drove to the bottom of the monument and threatened that he would blow it up with 1,000 pounds of dynamite. Thousands of people were evacuated, but some were held hostage with Mayer. After ten hours, he let the hostages leave and was shot and killed by U.S. Park Police. Authorities later carefully inspected Mayer's van and did not find the explosives he had claimed to have.
On August 23, 2011, the monument endured a severe earthquake. Although people were inside the monument at the time, no one was injured. It cost $15 million to repair the damage incurred by the earthquake.
It is worth noting that the Washington Monument represents more than the nation's first president. The monument itself honors and reflects the Judeo-Christian values America was founded upon.
Many people and institutions contributed stones for the Washington Monument. Many of these stones are inscribed with names and short messages. One such stone donated by Sabbath School Children of the Methodist E. Church in Philadelphia is engraved with John 5:39 ("Search the Scriptures"), Luke 18:16 ("Suffer little children to come unto me and forbid them not for of such is the Kingdom of God.") and Proverbs 22:6 ("Train up a child in the way he should go, and when he is old, he will not depart from it.") An image of the stone can be found here.
Other stones are engraved with phrases including "The memory of the just is blessed" (Proverbs 10:7), "Holiness to the Lord," "In God We Trust," "Qui Transtulit Sustinet" ("He who transplanted sustains"), and "May Heaven to this Union continue its beneficence." At the top of the monument is an aluminum cap engraved with the Latin phrase "Laus Deo" ("Praise be to God"). A list of memorial stones and their inscriptions can be found here. A gallery of photos of some of the stones can be found here.
In 2007, a controversy arose involving the monument's cap. While the monument was being renovated, a replica cap in the monument's museum was removed and later put back in such a way that the "Laus Deo" inscription was not visible. Also, the accompanying plaque omitted the meaning of "Laus Deo." After public outcry, the National Park Service later apologized and included the meaning of "Laus Deo" on the new plaque.
The Washington Monument isn't just a soaring memorial to "the father of his country." The verses and religious phrases inscribed on its stones serve as reminders of the Judeo-Christian values and religious freedom that played an important role in America's founding.